The gender pay gap remains a challenge: women earn 22% less globally, according to a report by the International Labor Organization (ILO).
So the gap is a measurable indicator of inequality.
Even when women with the same qualifications can obtain employment in the workforce or in management positions at the same level as men, they may receive a lower salary.
The pay gap between women and men has narrowed in some countries, but is still significant globally, with global estimates in 2018 of 22% of median monthly wages, according to the ILO.
There are also variations in the wage gap by country and within companies, indicates the report, entitled The future of diversity.
In management, ILO data show that the gender pay gap can range from 0 to 60%, and in 43 countries the gender pay gap in management is higher than the overall gender pay gap.
Also, in some cases, occupational segregation places women in management roles that are considered supportive management functions, such as human resources and administration, where pay is lower.
In most countries, however, the pay gap is largely due to discrimination, be it direct or indirect.
Gender pay gap
Also the World Bank data indicates that there are no differences in the educational levels of women in Europe (in fact, young men and boys are lagging behind); however, women still receive lower wages than men of the same age.
The ILO Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951, is one of the conventions most ratified by ILO member states; however, the principle of “equal pay for work of equal value” is complex, as the comparison of “like with like” often does not apply.
Some governments are taking a regulatory approach by introducing pay gap reporting.
Internationally, the ILO, together with the OECD and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women launched the International Coalition for Equal Pay in 2017 to assist governments and employers’ organizations and of workers to take measures to reduce the gender pay gap.
To do so successfully, companies must overcome barriers of discrimination, structural inequalities and integrate women into the labor market.