Complications of diabetes: market opportunity
The complications of diabetes are devastating, and the economic costs of diabetes care account for a substantial portion of healthcare budgets.
Despite the efforts of the scientific community to find a cure, the incidence of diabetes is on the rise.
According to information published by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) in its IDF Diabetes Atlas 9th Edition 2019 (www.diabetesatlas.org), in 2019, approximately 463 million adults (20-79 years) were living with diabetes; by 2045 this figure will increase to 700 million.
Another 374 million people are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Therefore, the treatment of diabetes is one of the main opportunities that Cell MedX Corp. sees for the use of its eBalance technology.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels) with impaired carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both.
Diabetes is one of the oldest diseases in the world, as the syndrome was discovered centuries ago.
But now the worldwide increase in the prevalence of diabetes has highlighted the need to intensify research efforts into treatment options for both the disease itself and its associated complications.
Complications of diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is caused by the destruction of the insulin-secreting (beta) cells of the pancreas.
The pathogenesis involves autoimmune processes leading to absolute insulin deficiency.
On the other hand, type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors leading to insulin resistance and insulin deficiency.
Non-genetic factors include increasing age, high caloric intake, obesity, central adiposity, sedentary lifestyle and low birth weight.
This group comprises approximately 90-95% of cases of diabetic syndrome.
Chronic hyperglycemia causes various metabolic, hormonal and physiological alterations in the body, which in turn develop a series of secondary complications, leading to the significant increases in morbidity and mortality seen in all types of diabetes.
Diabetes dramatically increases the risk of cardiovascular problems, such as coronary heart disease, chest pain (angina pectoris), heart attack, stroke, narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis), and high blood pressure.
Over time, high blood sugar can damage the walls of the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) that nourish the nerves, especially in the legs, causing tingling, numbness, burning or pain. Gradually, all sensation may be lost.
Nerve injuries in the feet or poor blood flow to the feet increase the risk of various foot complications.
In diabetics, minor injuries easily develop into serious infections, which may heal poorly. Severe damage may require amputation of toes, feet or legs.
Diabetes can damage the blood vessels in the retina (diabetic retinopathy), which can lead to blindness.
It also increases the risk of other serious vision diseases, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
Diabetic hypertension is a major contributor to kidney failure or irreversible end-stage renal failure, which often requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.