The World Trade Organization (WTO) identified 75 services-related trade sanctions adopted in the context of the war in Ukraine.
These sanctions were imposed by 39 WTO Members from mid-October 2021 to mid-May 2022 and relate to services and trade in services.
Approximately 20% of these sanctions relate to transport services (air, road or maritime).
For example, these include various bans on aviation, as well as restrictions on berthing in ports.
Almost 40% of trade sanctions include restrictions on the provision of certain services, including professional services and financial services. For example, several sanctions include a ban on the provision of credit rating services.
Others include investment control measures, as well as outbound investment and visa restrictions.
In response, the Russian Federation has adopted some countermeasures consisting mainly of investment and visa restrictions.
Some countermeasures also affect financial and air transport services.
The WTO Secretariat will continue to monitor developments in measures affecting trade in services, including measures taken in response to the crisis.
In particular, in the Committee on Agriculture, 141 questions were raised by Members in relation to individual notifications, pending notifications and specific implementation issues under Article 18.6, most of them concerning Members’ domestic support notifications or policies.
Developments in world food markets in the context of the war in Ukraine and the related implications for food security worldwide dominated discussions in the Committee on Agriculture.
During the period under review, of the eight reported export restrictions, one was implemented in response to the Covid-19 pandemic and two were directly or indirectly related to the conflict.
Many countries rely heavily on the Russian Federation and Ukraine for food, fuel and other essential goods.
In 2019, wheat from the Russian Federation and Ukraine accounted for 87% of wheat imports in Lebanon, 73% in Egypt, 56% in Senegal, and 49% in Uganda.
Ukraine alone supplied 49% of Tunisia‘s wheat imports and 31% of Ethiopia‘s wheat imports.
At the same time, 100% of the wheat imported into Mongolia, Benin and Kazakhstan came from the Russian Federation.
Similarly, high levels of import dependence are observed for maize (mainly used for animal feed), sunflower oil and fuels.