The European Union and its member states are increasingly turning to artificial intelligence (AI) technologies in their efforts to strengthen border control and mitigate security risks related to cross-border terrorism and serious crime.
The progress in the use of new tools linked to artificial intelligence is broken down in a recent analysis released by the European Parliament.
Overall, the document identifies and discusses four main types of AI applications that the European Union is using or considering using in the context of border security and control:
- Biometric identification (automatic fingerprint and face recognition).
- Emotion detection.
- Algorithmic risk assessment.
- Artificial intelligence tools for migration monitoring, analysis and forecasting.
For now, automated fingerprint identification technology is used in three information systems (the Schengen Information System, the European Fingerprint Database (Eurodac) and the Visa Information System).
It will also be used in two others: the Entry/Exit System and the European Criminal Record Information System and the System for third-country nationals.
Automated facial recognition technology (FRT) is not yet used in any information system in the European Union, but all systems except one (the European Travel Information Authorization System) are expected to process facial images in the near future. for the purpose of verification and / or identification.
For their part, emotion detection technologies constitute one of the most controversial applications of Artificial Intelligence at borders and elsewhere.
While there are currently no emotion detection systems deployed at the borders of the European Union, several projects and initiatives funded by the bloc have explored and tested these technologies in order to improve border control.
In addition to verifying and identifying known persons, AI algorithms are also used to identify unknown persons of concern based on specific data-driven risk profiles.
Algorithmic profiling to assess individual security risks and irregular migration is currently being developed in the context of the Visa Information System and the European Travel Information Authorization System.
In addition, the European Union is investing in tools based on artificial intelligence to monitor, analyze and forecast migration trends and security threats.