In 2021, Poland‘s trade with European Union countries accounted for 75.07% of exports and 54.06% of imports.
Germany is Poland’s main trading partner, accounting for 28.75% of exports and 20.91% of imports.
Trade with other European Union countries accounted for 46.32% of exports and 33.15% of imports in the same period.
The most significant export items in 2021 were machinery and transport equipment (automobiles, vehicles, ships, boats, parts and accessories for motor vehicles), manufactured goods and miscellaneous manufactured articles (other consumer goods).
Conversely, the most significant imported items are similar to those dominating exports, with chemicals and allied products playing a relatively larger role than in exports.
Since Poland’s accession to the European Union on May 1, 2004, Poland has applied the EU Common Customs Tariff.
The Common Customs Tariff specifies tariff classification rules and customs rates for each code of the Combined Nomenclature describing goods.
All economic operators in Poland are obliged to comply with the Common Customs Tariff if their activity consists of importing goods, regardless of whether they are domestic or foreign economic operators.
The Common Customs Tariff is binding in all its elements and directly applicable in each member state, including Poland.
From January 1, 2022, Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/1832 of 12 October 2021 amending Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2658/87 on the tariff and statistical nomenclature and on the Common Customs Tariff (OJ L 385/1 of 29 October 2021) and its corrigendum (OJ L 414/1 of 19 November 2021) regulate the Common Customs Tariff.
With approximately 38.1 million inhabitants, Poland is the most populous member of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe (and the fifth in the European Union as a whole).
Among the strengths of the Polish economy are: the private debt of non-financial corporations and households is relatively low; the monetary regime is flexible; Poland’s exports and economy are not dependent on a single sector; and the domestic market is large.