A total of 124 countries have made commitments against climate change in relation to net zero emissions by mid-century, the OECD reported.
First of all, climate change and environmental degradation are the defining challenges of this generation and require a comprehensive approach.
Specifically, global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions must decrease by 45% (compared to 2010 levels) by 2030 and reach at least net zero globally by 2050 to maintain the rise in global mean temperature. at 1.5 ° C above pre-industrial levels with no or limited overshoot.
However, according to the OECD, global CO2 emissions are still in 2021 above 2010 levels, despite a sharp drop in 2020 due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
To achieve the 1.5 ° C target, the scale of annual CO2 emission reductions until 2030 would have to be of an order of magnitude similar to that observed in 2020, when the reductions were caused by significantly reduced economic activities in response to the measures. containment of Covid-19.
From an OECD perspective, it is encouraging that an increasing number of countries and other stakeholders are setting net zero targets as a way to meet that challenge.
As of December 12, 2020, 124 countries, 73 states and regions, 155 cities and 417 companies had made some kind of commitment to net zero emissions by mid-century.
The challenge now is to implement this ambition, while ensuring that economies and societies become more resilient to the inevitable impacts of climate change that are already being felt.
Climate change cannot be addressed without addressing two other major forms of environmental stress: loss of biodiversity and pollution.
With an integrated approach, the action required to reduce global GHG emissions can have positive impacts on ecosystems and the environment as a whole.
For example, the OECD concluded, sustained reductions in non-CO2 emissions, such as methane (CH4), needed to limit the warming effect, would result in better air quality.