Mexico has great geographic diversity

Mexico has great geographic diversity and a strategic position to integrate with the rest of the world.In addition to mountain ranges and large coastal plains, the country has valleys, canyons, plateaus and depressions. Among Mexico’s most prominent geographic features are the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental, the Baja California Peninsula, the Mesa del Centro and the Yucatan Peninsula. 

Geographic diversity

According to Mexican government data, approximately 87.9 million hectares of Mexico’s land are arable, approximately 57.3 million hectares are suitable for grazing, and approximately 15.6 million hectares are forested.Mexico’s landscapes include, for example:

  • Paradisiacal beaches, such as in Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca.
  • Fertile valleys, such as the Yaqui Valley in Sonora.
  • Wooded areas, such as the Sierra Tarahumara in Chihuahua.
  • Desert areas, such as the Baja California desert.
  • Jungles, such as the Lacandon Jungle in Chiapas.
  • Tropical forests in the Yucatan Peninsula.


Mexico is the fifth largest nation in the Americas and the thirteenth largest in the world by total area, occupying a territory of 1,964,375 square kilometers (km). To the north, Mexico shares a 3,141 km border with the United StatesTo the southeast, Mexico shares a 641 km border with Guatemala and 249 km with Belize; to the east, its coastline extends 2,429 km along the Gulf of Mexico and 865 km along the Caribbean Sea; and to the west, its coastline extends 7,828 km along the Pacific Ocean.


Mexico is the third most populous nation in the Americas, with a population of 126 million, as reported by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI) in its 2020 Population and Housing Census. According to the census results, 79% of Mexico’s population lives in urban areas and 21% lives in rural areas. Mexico’s three largest metropolitan areas are the State of Mexico, Mexico City and Jalisco, with populations of 16.9 million, 9.2 million and 8.3 million, respectively.