Manufacturing industry in Poland

The most significant inflow of investments into Poland during 2021 was in the manufacturing industry, amounting to €9,057 million.

There were also significant inflows in professional, scientific and technical activities (€5,049 million) and wholesale and retail trade (€4,049 million).

According to Polish government data, net inflows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) into Poland amounted to €25,011 million in 2021.

Poland: FDI inflow

In particular, inflows from European Union (EU) countries amounted to €21,184 million, mostly from Spain, Germany, the Netherlands and France.

Net inflows from non-EU countries amounted to EUR 3,827 million, the most significant being from the Republic of South Korea.

FDI inflows in 2021 were mainly due to reinvested earnings, which amounted to €16,547 million, net equity inflows, which amounted to €4,283 million, and net equity inflows against debt instruments (other capital), which amounted to €4,184 million.

Manufacturing industry

The most important export items in 2021 were machinery and transport equipment (cars, vehicles, ships, boats, motor vehicle parts and accessories), manufactured goods and miscellaneous manufactured goods (other consumer goods).

Conversely, the most significant imported items are similar to those dominating exports, with chemicals and allied products playing a relatively more important role than in exports.


After the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the influx of Ukrainians to Poland, especially women and children, has increased dramatically.

However, the Russian invasion of Ukraine has also caused the outflow of some Ukrainian workers previously employed in Poland, especially men who have returned to defend their homeland.

The effect of the outflow is noticeable especially in manufacturing, construction, logistics and shipping, which together accounted for 66% of all work permits issued in 2021 to foreigners.

On the other hand, the influx of Ukrainians is expected to cover staffing needs in female-dominated industries.

According to the Act of March 12, 2022 on assistance to Ukrainian citizens in connection with the armed conflict on the territory of Ukraine, a citizen of Ukraine who legally arrived on the territory of Poland as of February 24, 2022, from the territory of Ukraine and declares his/her intention to stay in Poland, may be legally employed in Poland without a work permit, on the basis of a notification to the district labor office.


Redacción Opportimes

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